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For many, contemporary theatre is represented by the musical. The form remains, however, virtually unstudied by literary scholars. In part, this may be a result of the difficulty of accessing the texts. Reading a musical from a traditional codex is no easy matter. The integration of text and music in a musical make it inappropriate to separate the two. One can try to follow along with a cast recording. In most cases, though, this is awkward. Many cast albums record a significantly modified version of the score and lyrics and few include the entire work.
Further, musical theatre texts often exist in many different versions. This work begins with a summary of the problems one encounters when editing a multi-authored text musicals often have a lyricist, librettist, and composer which may be revised for practical rather than aesthetic reasons. The merits of restoring the material changed during the production process are debated. In this discussion some attempt is made to identify who should be considered the dominating collaborator or auteur of a musical.
Ultimately, this dissertation argues that the notion of trying to restore an "authorial Ur-Text" makes little sense given the multitude of collaborators involved in the process of making musicals. Instead, an electronic variorum edition is presented as an alternative means of studying and teaching musical theatre texts.
The study concludes with a narrative of the authors own work on an electronic edition of the Broadway musical Parade and ends with a critical introduction to this text. The University of Cambridge began to award doctorates in the first third of the 20th century. The first Cambridge PhD in mathematics was awarded in Your kid brother may listen only to the sound of money in his palm. Where to Seek Essay Title Ideas You can turn to experienced people like your teacher who can give you a couple of good recommendations.
One of these days I'm going to. Some people seem to believe that this will help the children in their academic career. Consumer Protection Law in the Bangladesh should be the national special law which specifically protects the interests and safety of end-user using the products or services provided by business operators. Share news of the family: Share any family news of marriages, job promotions, illnesses that you have come to know of so that they can also keep in touch with the other relatives.
This will promote the hotel services. There isnt enough room on the internet for the stories and complaints and basic mistreatment of musicians here. In children who had practiced writing by hand, the scans showed heightened brain activity in a key area, circled on the image at right, indicating learning took place.
Your project write-up is a chance to synthesize what you have learned about your mathematics research problem and to share it with others. Memoirs can be very emotionality releasing, fun to play around with, and can reward not only the reader but also you, the writer. Maintaining Petty cash expenses of the company and Billing. Distinguishes fancy the it has historical intuition real from fancy non-historical pure becoming top dissertation writing services from unreal. Prayer in this manner may prepare an individual to carry out positive pro-social behavior after praying, due to factors such as increased blood flow to the head and nasal breathing.
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The British troops were evacuated between the period from May Limnology and Oceanography No, this would be illogical, we just assume that we are running into a patch of variance. But when players move up a limit and suddenly go through a patch where they face a ton of 3bets, what do they assume? This is not a statement we can make until we have played at least 10k hands at the limit. Assuming that we know something about the limit after playing a mere few hundred hands can be very dangerous.
Perhaps we start stacking off lighter and wonder why we run into AA every time. In most cases we should stick to our current game as we move up to the next limit — if we find ourselves making sudden huge adjustments to our strategy then this is one reason why it seems impossible for us to ever crack the next limit up.
Armed with the suggestions in this article we should be able to take our shot-taking strategy to a higher level. One of the biggest losses in future potential which players suffer from is not taking shots aggressively enough. Naturally we do not want to advise playing outside of reasonable bankroll management rules, this is very important. But the highest long-term EV strategy is always to take shots as frequently and as aggressively as possible.
Generally speaking the stronger our range is perceived to be the smaller we can get away with betting. We can bluff more cheaply when perceived to be strong, and we also will want to bet smaller to help our value-bets get paid off. The idea of betting small with both our bluffs and our value-bets may seem counter-intuitive at first but is an important principle for when we begin to think about balancing our ranges.
If we pick two different sizings for our value-bets and bluffs then our game will become readable if we are facing a decent opponent. The sizings we pick should be smaller than average though when we are representing a strong range.
When we are perceived to be weak then it naturally follows that we should use larger sizings. Our opponent will be more inclined to call so we can counteract this by betting larger for value. If we want to bluff we will also need to make it larger to generate the required fold-equity. Again this may seem counter-intuitive and is to do with balance.
Since we are betting vs multiple opponents, even without any history we are often perceived to be strong. The natural tendency in multi-way situation is for players to bet large because a their bluff needs to get through multiple opponents and b there are more players that can potentially call their value-bet.
The common situations where we are perceived to be weak occur primarily in late position and as a result of history. For example if we are cbetting very frequently over a reasonable sample then we are going to be perceived as weak. We can think about increasing our bet-sizing.
We can also think about weighting our range towards value as an exploitative measure. Often if perceived as weak it can be good idea to weight our range towards value while when perceived as strong weight towards bluffs.
This particular concept is outside the scope of our discussion however. Whether this is more important than our own perceived range really depends on how decent our opponent is.
If our opponent is a poor hand reader then we should primarily focus on his range rather than our own perceived range. If our opponent is strong and is aware of the range we represent than our perceived range can often become the most important factor.
The general premise is similar: This should be treated as a rough guide only however. In order to effectively use this concept we need to be able to identify situations in which our opponent is very weak. One of the most common situations is when our opponent checks as the preflop raiser.
Most players cbet their best holdings and we may find that we can win the pot very frequently in these situations since our opponent has a capped range. Or perhaps a situation where opponent passively calls down on a drawy texture where we know he would check-raise his premiums on an earlier street. We may have the nuts, but betting large could be a mistake.
Our perceived range for 3barreling is strong while our opponents range is weak. We should be able to conclude that a small bet-sizing with the nuts is much more effective than a large bet sizing. The natural inclination for many players is to size their bet based on the strength of their hand which is often a mistake.
This should be taken as a starting point however and not a definitive guide to sizing in all situations. He may have a weak range but simply not be folding that weak range to regular or small size bets. This is why we frequently would consider overbetting vs a range that is capped. Our fold-equity may drastically increase when compared to a regular sized bet. In terms of game-theory principles the more bluffs we have in our range compared to value-hands the larger our sizing can be.
For this reason it can be correct to bet very large in situations where we are representing an extremely narrow range. We are looking primarily at holdings such as A-high and pocket-pairs. Opponent has a lot of decent bluffcatchers in his range at this point. It makes it significantly harder for opponent to call down with any bluffcatchers and hence allows us to bluff more frequently in the long run.
Exploitatively the main advantage to this line is simply that our opponent is capped and we can get him to fold the majority of his holdings. If we really held something like KJo perfectly legitimate and we knew our opponents range is capped, would we really overbet two streets here for value?
This is exactly why we can think about overbetting turn and river for value here despite the dry texture. Whether we purely take this line as a bluff or choose to balance it with value combos really depends on our opponent. What we can categorically state though is since we representing a very narrow value range it can be correct to bet large from a game theory perspective.
Imagine two opponents engaged in a heads up battle. They play identical ranges; in fact every aspect of their game is identical apart from one key factor — bet sizing.
Bet-sizing can easily be considered the most underestimated principle that applies to strong NLHE play. It could even be considered the number one thing that sets an average player apart from an elite professional. We will start with the basics then in the second part of this series we will consider some more advanced principles in relation to effective bet-sizing.
The idea behind bluffing is very simple, get the best risk to reward ratio on a bluff. In many cases this means making our bluffs as small as possible, but not always. There is a very simple method for calculating how often a bluff needs to work in order to be profitable. We simply need to look at the percentage of the total pot we invest including our bluff.
Hero is investing 7 out of the 17bb in the pot. It should be reasonably straightforward to establish that the smaller our bluff sizing the less our bluff needs to work. The reason for this is that as we change the sizing of our bluff we are also affecting the frequency with which our opponent folds.
It depends on our opponent, his tendencies, and his range. One key difference between average players and strong professional players is that they understand when to underbet bluff, when to bet a regular sizing and when to overbet. Naturally, the idea behind value-betting is to make the most money possible when we have a strong made hand. Often this may mean betting larger but certainly not always.
We also need to consider the frequency with which our opponent calls. Sometimes smaller value-bets will make us more money in the long run. We have the nuts on the river. There is 50bb in the pot. We simply multiply our sizing by our frequency we get called. We need to express the percentage as a decimal to do this, i. So in this particular case underbetting actually makes us the most money because it gets paid off so much more frequently.
This is just an example however, overbetting could easily be the best if it gets paid off more frequently. Here are some reasons why. Exploiting Inelastic Ranges — We may find on a drawy texture that our opponents calling range does not vary based on our sizing. If we bet big in these instances we are simply not getting the best risk: Iso-ing vs Better — When betting for thin value we need to be careful about betting too large and causing our opponent to continue with a range that primarily has us beaten.
This means if we have a thin value hand on a drawy texture betting large can easily be a mistake. It just means his calling frequency is higher and we are potentially extracting more value from him in the long-run. If villain will call an overbet on a dry texture because he never folds, then we should overbet for value.
Opponent is Capped — We might be able to define our opponents range as relatively weak. This is also pretty useful in situations where we are repping a narrow value-range as is often the case on dry textures , but we will discuss this a little further in part 2 of the series.
Preflop Sizings 3bet — 3 times the opponents open raise size 4bet — 2. A common mistake players make sizing their bets based on the strength of their hand rather than their opponents potential calling range.
Prior to , triple draw games were rare and most commonly were offered as part of mixed games at ultra high-limits rather than as stand-alone games. It was clearly different from the modern triple-draw since players started the hand with cards, but we can see that the origins of lowball draw games stretch back several decades at the very least. In a tournament game the objective is to be the last player left standing with all of the chips. Pre-draw first round of betting before any drawing takes place , the blinds act last.
The blinds must also make a mandatory payment of the small-blind and big-blind. Post-draw after the drawing rounds have begun , the button acts last on every street while the player directly to the left of the button acts first on every street. On each round players have the option to discard as many of their cards as they wish up to a total of 5.
These should be replaced with fresh cards from the desk. Watching how many cards our opponents draw is an important part of hand-reading in triple draw. It is possible to run out of cards when playing draw variants. And we mean always — A,2,3,4,5 does not make a straight in Triple Draw. So rather than other low-ball variants where A,2,3,4,5 is the nuts, the nuts in Triple Draw is actually 2,3,4,5,7.
Note that 2,3,4,5,6 would make a straight and would actually be a very weak hand. When analysed like this some might even find hand-reading in triple draw easier than the standard low-ball method of reading hands where straights and flushes are ignored. The first concept to master is understanding how many cards to discard and draw based on our hand-strength.
Hands weaker than this should be discarded in most situations. Similar to other positional variants of poker, our standard hand criteria is going to be dependent on our position. There are exceptions to this however, we might be able to limp if several other players have already limped before us or if the action is on us unopened and we are in the SB. There are 2 main ways that we can hand-read in Triple Draw. The first is observing our opponents betting patterns. The second is looking at how many cards he draws.
If they draw 1 card they are likely reasonably strong while if they draw 5-cards they likely had total garbage. Assuming someone stands pat they usually have a decent made low hand, probably low or better at the very least. For the most part 9-low and low hands are considered bluffcatchers while 8-low and better are considered the value hands. Whether the game is played no-limit or fixed-limit will have a big effect on the correct strategy.
There are 2 main differences with the fixed-limit variety of the game. Firstly we will have less fold-equity on any given street since we can only bet in accordance with the allowed fixed bet-sizing. Secondly we will have less implied odds in any situation since it is not possible to get all of the remaining stacks in at any given time. This will often have an effect on the types of hands we can play profitably pre-draw.
In a no-limit game we might pick up a big payout if we hit our draw, and we also might be able to bluff our opponent post-draw if he shows weakness. This is a lot harder to do in fixed-limit. If you like draw games, especially lowball games that generate a ton of action then maybe Triple Draw is for you. In the previous two parts of this series we have looked specifically at c-betting situations where we are in position.
Cbetting OOP is a slightly different. Statement b will also apply to in-position situations. We want to occasionally check back both strong hands and air for protection. In position however, we will always get to see a free turn card.
So even if our flop checking-back range IP is extremely weak, it will improve on the turn card with some frequency giving us a little extra defense. The most common issue is that players are not defending their checking range as the PFR. This is not to be confused with checking our defending range in general which is completely different.
For example, BTN opens, we defend out of the blinds by cold-calling. Many players are checking their entire range on the flop — and consquently they are doing a reasonable job of defending their checking range.
Defending our checking range as the PFR is a completely different ball-game since we are often going to start out by firing a continuation bet rather than checking our entire range. If we decide to cbet all of our high-potential hands it means our checking range will be completely undefended. We should be making use of the following stats within our tracking software. What kind of hands is the average player cbetting here? Most players are cbetting their strongest holdings for value.
Many players are also taking a nice selection of high-potential backdoor hands with the intention of barreling good turn and river cards. All is well so far.
Here is where the average player runs into a little bit of difficulty. This is actually a very simple issue to fix. If he tries to barrel us off what he perceives to be a weak range he is going to be in for a nasty surprise when we show up with top set after he 3barrels. Some players have even gone so far as to make this specific adjustment in their game which is commendable. Currently we have our mid-strength showdown hands which we have carefully protected with some slow-played premiums.
Turn is a blank. We check again, our opponent checks back. Now the action is on us OOP on a blank river and we have the option to lead. First thing to notice is that turn and river cards are blank for the purposes of this example. We still have at this stage some mid-strength showdown holdings and some premium slow-plays. Doubtless we want to value-bet a decent chunk of what we are holding. We will value-bet most of the slow-plays and maybe even a few of the mid-strength showdown value hands if we feel our opponents range is wide enough and that he would pay us off with worse hands frequently enough.
So what kind of bluff-range should we select? We have value-hands and we have ok mid-strength bluff-catchers which we should probably check. We could of course attempt to turn some of our mid-strength showdown hands into bluffs, but this would usually be a suboptimal approach. So how do we solve this problem? Interestingly the problem is not caused by bad river play in the slightest. Which adjustment could we make on an earlier street to ensure that we have some decent river-bluffs in our range?
Without this we have absolutely no hope of being able to create balanced ranges on later streets. We need some of these high-potential air type hands which we can use as bluffs assuming we miss. If you have a bad reaction to this statement there is a reasonable chance that you have been moulded by the general consensus of the average poker player. If we suggest such a line on a forum we may often be told the following —. We have no showdown value whatsoever.
The exact frequencies are not important — they are not based on any specific calculation and are estimates. KcKd — Here is a situation where we have the board completely locked up. We could consider cbetting the flop to extract value from floats and then setting a trap by checking the turn. AsAc — This hand is a little more vulnerable than the KK.
We also block less Kx combos so extracting value is easier. AcQc — This hand clearly has a reasonable amount of potential but reduced barreling opportunities with no back-door flush.
Assuming opponent had an exploitably high fold-to-flop cbet we could include it purely in our cbetting range. KcQc — Things get a little more complex on this texture since now after we check as the PFR we also will have the option to check-raise. The only thing we need to establish is with which frequency we would do this.
So if were to estimate frequencies we might come up with something along the lines of —. Note that these are not be taken as optimal frequencies for defending as the PFR in general, just recommended frequencies for this specific hand.
Some types of holding may still appear exclusively in one of the three lines only. As for general defense when checking as the PFR we should be looking at something along the lines of. This is enough to give our opponent a small amount of automatic profit, but this is to be expected when we have a positional disadvantage. Ah5h — Once again flush-draws are very versatile hands and can certainly be played profitably in all of the lines.
Ah5h is likely at the top of the mid-strength draws. This can be fine in practice at the lower limits but is an unbalanced strategy. If we cbet all of our strong holdings, even on a drawy texture, our checking range will start to become undefended. This can also be a good exploitative line if our opponent has a very high bet-vs-missed cbet.
Again this might not be necessary in practice, but it is correct as part of a balanced strategy and exploitatively might be stronger than cbetting vs certain opponents. However if we look carefully we will see that our draw is heavily dominated and our holding is not so strong. If we spike our 9 there is a higher 4-to-straight possible making our straight very weak.
There is also the available heart draw which taints many of our straight outs. Even if we hit an offsuit 4 on the turn our opponent may have some redraw possibilities and may even simply have us drawing dead with the flopped higher straight.
In this article we will consider our analysis of various c-betting spots and the thought processes that should accompany them. Please read part 1 first to give the article some context. QdQh — This hand should have a similar feel to one of the situations we considered in the previous article.
Of all the situations so far, which hand would you say QdQh is the most similar too in terms of vunerability and playability? It would have to be the Kc3c. There is only one over-card we fear with QQ similar to holding the Kc3c. Also the texture still holds no possible flush or straight draws meaning the hand is distinctly non-vulnerable. However does this mean Kc3c and QdQh are equivalent on this texture?
There are a number of differences. Firstly which of the two hands is most likely to improve to a strong hand by the river? QQ actually has only 2 outs with which it can improve while the Kc3c has 5. So what is the main difference in terms of our plan for later streets? We would start the hand in a similar way by checking back the flop as default.
However assuming our opponent leads the turn we should definitely think about calling at least once with both hands. The main difference will occur on the river. In many games we should call facing a double barrel with the Kc3c and fold facing a double-barrel with the QdQh.
Vs some opponents we could likely call two streets with the QQ, while vs other opponents even calling twice with the K3 could be very close and end up being a fold.
Here is where we can draw our default line — weak top pair we call with twice, underpair we call turn and proceed to fold river. All the examples thus far have been on a dry texture. We mentioned that either would probably be reasonable as a default, but betting is slightly better. Our hand is now considerably more vulnerable than it was on the K72r board. There are a number of possible straight and fush draws that could hit on the turn.
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There isnt enough room on the internet for the stories and complaints and basic mistreatment of musicians here. In children who had practiced writing by hand, the scans showed heightened brain activity in a key area, circled on the image at right, indicating learning took place.
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