Curtain 03-11 binary
Industrial safety requires protection of operators, maintenance personnel, and bystanders from potential injuries from hazardous machinery or materials. In many cases the hazards can be reduced by automatically sounding an alarm or shutting off a process when dangerous circumstances are sensed, such as by detection of a person or object approaching a dangerous area. Industrial hazards include mechanical e.
Varying combinations of hazards encountered in industrial processing can require numerous simultaneous safeguards, increasing capital expenses related to the process, and reducing reliability and flexibility thereof. Machine tools can be designed with inherent safety features. Alternatively, hazards of machines or materials may be reduced by securing an enclosed machine or portions of the processing area during hazardous production cycles.
Mechanical switches, photo-optical curtain 03-11 binary and other proximity or motion sensors are well known safety and security components. These types of protection have the general disadvantage of being very limited in ability to detect more than a simple presence or absence or motion of an object or person.
In addition, simple sensors are typically custom specified or designed for the particular machine, material, or area to be secured against a single type of hazard. Mechanical sensors, in particular, have the disadvantage of being activated by unidirectional touching, and they must often be specifically designed for curtain 03-11 binary unique purpose. They cannot sense any other types of intrusion, nor sense objects approaching nearby, or objects arriving from an unpredicted direction. Even complicated combinations of motion and touch sensors can offer only limited and inflexible safety or security for circumstances in which one type of object or action in the area should be allowed, and another type should result in an alarm condition.
Any opaque object that blocks one of the beams will trigger the sensor, and thus sound an alarm or deploy other safety measures. However, since light beams travel in straight lines, the optical transmitter and receiver must be carefully aligned, and are typically found arranged with parallel beams. Light curtains are usually limited to the monitoring of planar protection areas.
One major disadvantage of a light-curtain sensor is that there is a minimum resolution of objects that can even be detected, as determined by the inter-beam spacing.
Objects approaching dangerously close to the curtain remain undetected, and a fast-moving intruding object might not be detected until too late, thus forcing the designers to position the curtains further away from the danger areas in order to provide the necessary time-interval for safety measures.
In addition, the safe operating range between the photo-transmitter and corresponding receiver can be severely limited in cases where chips, dust, or vapors cause dispersion and attenuation of the optical beam, or where vibrations and other machine movements can cause beam misalignment. Furthermore, light curtains are susceptible to interference from ambient light, whether from an outside source, or reflected by a nearby object.
This factor further limits the applications, making use difficult in locations such as outdoors, near welding operations, or near reflective materials. In such locations, the optical receivers may not properly sense a change in a light bean. Still further, light curtains are made from large numbers of discrete, sensitive, optical components that must be constantly monitored for proper operation to provide the requisite safety without false alarms. It is axiomatic that system reliability is reduced in proportion to the number of essential components and their corresponding failure rates.
Microwave curtains are also available, in which focused microwave radiation is sent across an area to be protected, and changes in the energy or phasing at the distant receiver can trigger an alarm event. Microwave sensors have many of the same disadvantages of light curtains, including many false alarm conditions. Ultrasonic sensor curtain 03-11 binary are available, based upon emission and reception of sound energy at frequencies beyond human hearing range.
Unlike photoelectric sensing, based upon optically sensing an object, ultrasonic sensing depends upon the hardness or density curtain 03-11 binary an object, i. This makes ultrasonic sensors practical in some cases that are unsuitable for photoelectric sensors, however they share many common disadvantages with the photoelectric sensors. Most significantly, like many simple sensors, the disadvantages of ultrasonic sensors include that they produce only a binary result, i.
Similar problems exist for passive infrared sensors, which can only detect presence or absence of an object radiating heat. Video surveillance and other measurement sensors are also known for use to automatically detect indications of malfunctions or intruders in secured areas. These types of known sensors are also limited to the simple detection of change in the video signal caused by the presence of an object, perhaps at some pre-defined location.
These systems cannot detect the size or more importantly position of an object, since they are limited curtain 03-11 binary sensing a twodimensional change in a scene. Another disadvantage of the video system is that it is limited to sensing motion or other change within the two-dimensional scanned scene, rather than other characteristics, such as the distance between objects.
Furthermore, such systems cannot detect the number of intruding objects. They are unable to sense conditions under which a changed object creates an alarm condition, as opposed to an unchanged object, which will not create an alarm condition.
Similarly, such systems disadvantageously can not provide an indication where two objects would be acceptable and one would create an alarm condition, and vice versa. In this mode, the intruder can avoid detection by moving only when the camera is pointing away, and hiding behind other objects, creating the need for additional types of sensors to augment the video surveillance.
Still further, video surveillance systems have no depth perception, and thus a small object near the camera could be perceived as equivalent to the image of a large object farther away. More recently, proximity laser scanners PLS have been used to detect objects within a defined area curtain 03-11 binary the PLS sensor. The PLS technology uses a scanning laser beam and measures the time-of-flight for reflected light to determine the position of objects within the viewing field. A relatively large zone, e.
However, like many of the other sensor technologies, the scanning laser systems typically curtain 03-11 binary distinguish between different sizes or characteristics of objects detected, making them unsuitable for many safety or security applications. Curtain 03-11 binary, the scanning laser systems typically incorporate moving parts, e.
Such moving parts experience wear, require precision alignment, are extremely fragile and are thus unreliable under challenging curtain 03-11 binary conditions. Also, the PLS cannot discriminate between multiple objects and a single object in the same location. Nor can such systems detect the curtain 03-11 binary and direction of the objects within the area being monitored. Thus, an object moving toward the target might raise the same alarm as an object in curtain 03-11 binary same location moving away from the target, causing a false curtain 03-11 binary in the PLS or video surveillance, or other motion sensors.
Also, the PLS cannot be used where a moving curtain 03-11 binary is allowed in the area, i. The present invention provides a three-dimensional 3-D machine-vision safety-solution involving a method and apparatus for performing high-integrity, high curtain 03-11 binary machine vision.
According to the invention, the 3-D machine-vision safety-solution apparatus includes an image acquisition device such as two or more video cameras, or digital cameras, arranged to view a target scene stereoscopically.
The cameras pass the resulting curtain 03-11 binary video output signals to a computer for further processing. Video images from each camera are then synchronously curtain 03-11 binary, captured, and stored in a memory associated with a general purpose processor.
The digitized image in the form of curtain 03-11 binary information can then be stored, manipulated and otherwise processed in accordance with capabilities of the vision system. The digitized images are accessed from the memory and processed according to the invention, under control of a computer program.
The results of the processing are then stored curtain 03-11 binary the memory, or curtain 03-11 binary be used to activate other processes and apparatus adapted for the purpose of taking further action, depending upon the application of the invention. In further accord with the invention, the machine-vision safety solution method and apparatus involves two phases of operation: In the training phase, a scene containing a target is viewed curtain 03-11 binary the stereoscopic cameras to collect reference image sets.
Each reference curtain 03-11 binary set contains digitized reference images captured substantially simultaneously from the video cameras e. Using an appropriate stereopsis algorithm, the reference image sets are processed to obtain 3 -D descriptive information about points corresponding to the reference object, or objects, or other surfaces in a reference area i. A set of 3 -D points is registered as a model for the reference object or target, along with various other parameters that control the train-time operation, the run-time operation, and provide information about tolerances.
During the run-time phase, an illustrative embodiment of the present invention uses the same image acquisition process to gather information about a monitored scene, and to determine 3-D information about the monitored scene. A set of run-time stereoscopic images are processed for 3-D information about any objects or physical entities in the scene, and a set of run-time 3-D points is generated, corresponding to the monitored scene.
The train-time 3-D points are then compared with the run-time 3-D points, and a result is generated according to the specific needs of the application. In the most general case, the position of the intruder object relative to the target is calculated, i. This distance can then be used to trigger various results.
For example, if the safety rules require an alarm when a person approaches a machine from the wrong angle, the method and apparatus according to the invention might be configured to provide a result related to the position of the intruder with respect to the reference object.
When an object meeting the specified 3-D criteria enters or approaches the danger location, appropriate safety measures might be triggered alarm, shutdown, shield deployment, etc. On the other hand, the system could recognize that the intruding object is not in a position to indicate the presence of an object in or approaching a hazardous location, and would therefore allow the operation to continue.
Features curtain 03-11 binary the present invention include the ability to generate a wide variety of realtime 3-D information about 3-D objects in the secured area at run-time. Using the system according to the invention, distance from one object to another can also be calculated, allowing the safety or security system to enforce proximity rules.
Multiple objects can be detected in positions that result in different output results for each object e. The results can depend upon the 3-D position of the intruder object with respect to the target, based upon the 3-D data points detected for the intruder object.
Results can also be measured in terms of distance between multiple intruder objects. Furthermore, the 3-D video safety method and apparatus can be configured to permit 3-D motion of the target, such as moving parts, vibration or rotation. It can also be used to identify and permit expected positional changes of the target object within the protected area. Comparison of a monitored target to a reference target based on position or spatial relationships between 3-D objects e.
The system requires substantially curtain 03-11 binary reliance on moving mechanical parts subject to the rigors of wear and tear. Calculation of 3-D information about objects observed in curtain 03-11 binary safety solution according to the invention overcomes numerous disadvantages of the prior art by allowing safety rules to be defined based upon derivation of 3-D information about particular 3-D objects and their relative locations and orientations, not just the presence of some ambiguous difference within the scene being viewed i.
It is not necessary for the invention to be placed very close to, or in contact with the hazard, as would be necessary for mechanical sensors. Machine vision systems offer a superior approach to security and safety sensors by processing images of a scene to detect and quantify the objects being viewed.
Machine vision systems can provide, among other things, an automated capability for performing diverse inspection, location, measurement, alignment and scanning tasks. Other advantages of the invention are that it may be used to capture and process a series of several run-time images, and calculate a 3-D trajectory of the moving object. This information may be very important for curtain 03-11 binary the approach of an intruder on a collision course with a hazardous area. Another feature of the invention is the ability to display the target object, the intruder objects, and the shortest minimum distance vector.
Another feature of the invention is the ability to automatically store and archive digitized images of the scene in which an infraction of the safety or security rules existed, for later review.
These and other features of the present invention will be better understood in curtain 03-11 binary of the following detailed description taken in conjunction curtain 03-11 binary the drawings, in which:. A vision curtain 03-11 binary implemented in a security and safety embodiment according to the invention is illustrated in FIG. The system incorporates an image acquisition devicecomprising at least two curtain 03-11 binary 10 a10 bsuch as the Triclops model available from Point Grey Research, Vancouver B.
The cameras 10 a10 b send a video signal via signal cables 12 curtain 03-11 binary a video safety and security processor The two cameras 10 curtain 03-11 binary10 b are both focused on a scene 32 to be monitored. The video safety and security processor 14 includes a video image frame capture device 18image processor 26and results processor 30all of which curtain 03-11 binary connected to a memory device Curtain 03-11 binary, digitized video image sets curtain 03-11 binary from the video image capture device 18such as a Multichannel Curtain 03-11 binary Grabber available from Cognex Corp, Natick, Mass.
The image processor 26implemented in this illustrative embodiment curtain 03-11 binary a general purpose computer, receives the stored digitized video image sets 24 and generates a 3-D data set The 3-D data set 28 is delivered to the results processor 30 which generates results data 32as described in detail hereinafter. The results data 32 effect results as a function of the application, and may, for example, be fed to the alarm output The image acquisition device in the illustrative embodiment comprises an arrangement, as illustrated in FIG.
In the illustrative arrangement, three cameras: Referring now to FIG.
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